The hypothesis of existence of the new stable heavy hadrons in the cosmic rays is proposed. It follows from the comprehensive study of extensive air showers in
the hybrid experiment HADRON which was carried out at the level 685 g/cm^2 of the Tien Shan mountains. The spectra of the high energy hadrons inside the cores of extensive air showers were obtained for the first time by means of the large X-ray emulsion chamber combined with showers installation. The scaling violation in the hadron spectra was detected for primary energies of cosmic rays 3•10^15-10^17 eV. The slope of the spectra decreases and then returns to the previous or slightly larger value. This is an unexpected result. In addition the interval of the scaling violation coincides with the region of the transformation of the spectrum of extensive air showers. It means that unusual scaling violation and cosmic ray spectrum reconstruction are caused by one reason. The discussion shows that the observed results contradict as the traditional model of growth of the part of heavy nuclei in these energies and changing of the characteristics of nuclear cascades. This effect can be associated with penetrating anomalous component of cosmic rays such as the hypothetical particles of strange quark matter-strangelets.
The result allows us to put forward a hypothesis that the CR consists of ordinary nuclei up to energies ~10^15 eV , and at high energies of quasi-nuclei (strangelets) with masses from ~10^3 to 10^7 GeV.